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Methodological explanation for the news release:

Energy balances

Sources of data collection

Sources of data collection for the annual report on “Energy Balances” are: Monthly surveys on energy, Annual surveys on energy, Quarterly survey on forestry, Annual survey on forestry, Survey on consumption of energy in households in 2019, Annual survey on agriculture, Statistical survey on external trade and Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in the Republic of North Macedonia, 2021.

In the Energy Balances 2016 in the categories Import/Export on petroleum products, reexport is excluded.

Data scope

In the process of collecting data from the reporting units the method of full coverage is used (for business entities that perform production, transmission and distribution of energy), as well as the sample method (for business entities that are consumers of energy).


For defining the categories in the balance scheme the Annual questionnaires for: Coal, Oil, Natural gas, Electricity and Heat, Renewables of Eurostat, ECE/UN and IEA/OECD are used.

Hard Coal = Anthracite + Coking Coal + Other Bituminous Coal

Lignite = Brown Coal + Lignite

Motor Spirit = Unleaded Motor Gasoline + Leaded Motor Gasoline + Aviation Gasoline

Kerosenes, Jet Fuels = Gasoline Type Jet Fuel + Kerosene Type Jet Fuel + Other Kerosene

Since 2012, part of exported Kerosene consumed on domestic airports for international air transport is included in final consumption, in Air transport category.

Other Petroleum Products = White and Industrial Spirit + Lubricants + Bitumen + Paraffin Waxes + Other Petroleum Products

Wood Fuel= Wood Fuel + Wood of fruit trees and other plant residues

Biomass = Wood Fuel + Wood of fruit trees and other plant residues + Briquettes, pellets and wood residues.

Solar thermal energy is usefully used energy from sanitary hot water generated through solar systems.

Solar electricity is electricity produced by photovoltaic power plants.

Import/Export represents the quantity that entered/left the national territory.

Transformation input includes energy commodities consumed for transformation into another energy form (Heat and Electricity).

Public thermal power stations are plants for production of Electricity only.

Autoproducer thermal power stations are plants for combined production of Electricity and Heat.

CHP plants are combined heat and power plants, which produce both heat and electricity intended for sale.

Main activity producer heat plants are plants for production of Heat intended for sale.

Exchanges and transfers, returns represent transfer of produced Petroleum Products for further production or transfer of electricity gross production from renewable sources.

Losses include all losses due to transmission and distribution of energy (natural gas, electrical energy, geothermal heat, derived heat).

Available for final consumption is energy available to final consumers.

Gross national electricity consumption is the sum of net electricity import and gross national electricity production.

Energy dependency is produced as ratio between the net-import of energy and the gross inland consumption.

Energy intensity represents the ratio between the gross inland consumption of energy and the gross domestic product (GDP) in Euros with reference year 2005.

Share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption is calculated as the ratio of the gross final energy consumption from renewable sources and the gross final energy consumption from all energy sources expressed as a percentage.

Gross final consumption of energy from renewable sources is calculated as the sum of: gross final consumption of electricity from renewable energy sources, gross final consumption of energy from renewable sources for heating and cooling; and gross final consumption of energy from renewable sources in transport.

Gross final consumption of energy contains energy commodities delivered for energy purposes to final consumers, including the consumption of electricity and heat by the energy branch for electricity and heat production and including losses of electricity and heat in distribution and transmission.

For calculating the indicator with normalized values in gross final consumption of electricity, weighted values of generated hydropower are used in order to balance the effects from climatic variations.

Tonne of oil equivalent (toe) is a conventional standardized unit defined on the basis of a tonne of oil with a net calorific value of 41868 kilojoules/kg.

Energy sector includes divisions: 05, 08.92, 19, 35 (from NKD).

Industry sector includes divisions: Iron & steel industry: 24.1, 24.2, 24.3, 24.51, 24.52 (from NKD); Chemical industry: 20, 21 (from NKD); Non-ferrous metal industry: 24.4, 24.53, 24.54 (from NKD); Glass, pottery & building mat. Industry: 23 (from NKD); Ore-extraction industry: 07, 08, 09.9 (from NKD); Food, drink & tobacco industry: 10, 11, 12 (from NKD); Paper and printing: 17, 18 (from NKD); Textile, leather & clothing industry: 13, 14, 15 (from NKD); Engineering & other metal industry: 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 (from NKD); Other industries: 16, 41, 42, 43 (from NKD).

Transport sector includes divisions: 49, 50, 51 (from NKD).

Agriculture sector includes divisions: 01, 02 (from NKD).

Statistical difference = Available for final consumption - Final non-energy consumption - Final energy consumption

Calculation method

For calculating the Energy balances, the methodology "Energy Statistics Methodology Eurostat F4, 1998" is used. Energy balances are prepared in accordance with Regulation (EC) No 1099/2008 on energy statistics and its amendments.

Data in category Total primary production and Final energy consumption in households for fuel wood are calculated based on model of heating degree days in relevant year in accordance with the Manual for statistics on energy consumption in households, Eurostat.

One heating degree day is a difference between average indoor temperature (180C) and the daily outdoor temperature (in case it is lower or equal to 150C). For temperature bigger than 150C, heating degree day is equal to zero.

In process of converting values from natural units into energy values by type of energy commodities are used:

-   in category Import - average calorific values released in publications of IEA, FAO and Manuel of energy statistics, published by Eurostat, IEA and OECD,

-   in category Gross primary production and Transformation output - average calorific values are received from energy producers in Republic of Macedonia.


In the distribution of the final energy consumption the National Classification of Activities NKD Rev.2 (Official Gazette of the Republic of Macedonia No. 147/2008) is used.

Last updated: 26.10.2023

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