Population statistics refer to numerical data on the population that is the subject of observation, and serve as a basis for analysis of demographic and social changes and tendencies that influence structural population changes.
Population changes are usually a result of the direct influence of natural changes (births and deaths) and mechanical changes (migration).
Sources of data on population and households are the Censuses which were carried out in 1921, 1931, 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 1994 and 2002, according to uniform methodologies and forms for all Census areas.
Estimated mid-year population figures are based on Census results and data on natural population increase, and since 1992 the estimations include the data on mechanical increase.
Registration of vital events (births, deaths and marriages) can be defined as registration of a person from his/her birth to the end of life, including changes of personal status (marital status). Sources of data on births, live births, deaths and marriages are the relevant registers, while for divorces, the registers and records of the relevant courts.
Migration of population, as one of the components of the population development, has dual implications over the demographic situation of an area or territory. Migrations directly influence the increase or decrease in population size (depending on whether the net migration is positive or negative). Besides changing the population size, considering the relatively higher proportion of the young and reproductively capable people, migrations are changing the age and sex structure of the population, and indirectly influence the intensity of the natural growth of the population. Sources of data on mechanical changes in population i.e. migration of population within the Republic of Macedonia are the forms registering or notifying resettlement of removal, which are completed by competent clerks in the Ministry of Interior.
Since 2009, the State Statistical Office registers the movement and residence of foreigners in the Republic of Macedonia by electronically obtaining data from the records of the Ministry of Interior.
Starting from 2004, the vital statistics data cover the vital events occurring only within the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. All indicators related to vital events are calculated on the basis of this methodology.
According to the data from the last Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in 2002, the Republic of Macedonia had 2.022.547 inhabitants, which is 3.9% more compared with the Census in 1994 and 43% more compared with the Census in 1948. According to population estimates (on 30.06.2015), the Republic of Macedonia has 2 070 226 inhabitants, and the population density is 80.5 inhabitants per km2.
As regards population ageing, in 2015, the participation of the young population (age group 0-14) in the total population was 16.7%, and the participation of the old population (age group 65 and over) was 12.8%.
In 2015, there were 23 260 births, of which 23 075 live births and 185 stillbirths.
The total fertility rate (TFR) in 2015 was 1.49 live births per woman.
According to the mothers’ age, in 2015, most (34.5%) were live births to mothers aged 25-29. The mean age of mothers for all live births was 28.7 years, while the mean age of mothers at first birth was 27.0 years.
Given that the largest number of live births (89.0%) in 2015 occurred within marriage, it can be said that the reduction of fertility is due to postponement of marriage to older age. The number of marriages registered in 2015 was 14 186, while the number of divorces was 2 200. The average age at first marriage is 26.2 years for bride and 29.0 for groom.
Changes in the age structure of the population have their impact on the number of deaths in the country. In 2015, there were 20 461 deaths, an increase of 3.8% compared to the previous year. The average age at death is 70.4 years for males and 75.1 years for females, which means that women live 4.7 years longer on average.
The most common causes of death are circulatory diseases with 58.4% of the total number of deaths, followed by neoplasms with 18.3%, endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases with 4.3%, etc.
As a result of the declining birth rate and the increasing rate of general mortality in the last 10 years, the rate of natural increase has dropped from 2.0‰ (per 1000 population) in 2005 to 1.3‰ in 2015.
In 2015, 8 050 persons changed their place of residence within the Republic of Macedonia, and net migration was 2 960 persons.