Population statistics refer to numerical data on the population that is the subject of observation, and serve as a basis for analysis of demographic and social changes and tendencies that influence structural population changes.
Population changes are usually a result of the direct influence of natural changes (births and deaths) and mechanical changes (migration).
Sources of data on population and households are the Censuses which were carried out in 1921, 1931, 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, 1994 and 2002, according to uniform methodologies and forms for all Census areas.
Estimated mid-year population figures are based on Census results and data on natural population increase, and since 1992 the estimations include the data on mechanical increase.
Registration of vital events (births, deaths and marriages) can be defined as registration of a person from his/her birth to the end of life, including changes of personal status (marital status). Sources of data on births, live births, deaths and marriages are the relevant registers, while for divorces, the registers and records of the relevant courts.
Migration of population, as one of the components of the population development, has dual implications over the demographic situation of an area or territory. Migrations directly influence the increase or decrease in population size (depending on whether the net migration is positive or negative). Besides changing the population size, considering the relatively higher proportion of the young and reproductively capable people, migrations are changing the age and sex structure of the population, and indirectly influence the intensity of the natural growth of the population. Sources of data on mechanical changes in population i.e. migration of population within the Republic of Macedonia are the forms registering or notifying resettlement of removal, which are completed by competent clerks in the Ministry of Interior.
Since 2009, the State Statistical Office monitors the movement and residence of foreigners in the Republic of Macedonia by electronically obtaining data from the records of the Ministry of Interior.
Starting from 2004, the vital statistics data cover the vital events occurring only within the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. All indicators related to vital events are calculated on the basis of this methodology.
According to the data from the last Census of Population, Households and Dwellings in 2002, the Republic of Macedonia had 2.022.547 inhabitants, which is 3.9% more compared with the Census in 1994 and 43% more compared with the Census in 1948.
According to population estimates (on 30.06.2011), the Republic of Macedonia has 2.058.539 inhabitants, and the population density is 80.1 inhabitants per km2.
As regards population ageing, in 2011, the participation of the young population (age group 0-14) in the total population was 17.3%, and the participation of the old population (age group 65 and over) was 11.8%.
In 2011, the birth rate was 11.1 live births per 1000 inhabitants, and compared with the previous year, the number of live births decreased by 1 526 children, or 6.3%.
According to the values of total fertility rate (TFR), the downward trend in fertility continued in 2011, when it was 1.46 live births per woman. According to the mothers’ age, in 2011, most (35.3%) were live births to mothers aged 25-29. The mean age of mothers for all live births was 28.0 years, while the mean age of mothers at first birth was 26.2 years.
Given that the largest number of live births (88.4 percent) in 2011 occurred within marriage, it can be said that the reduction of fertility is due to postponement of marriage to older age. The number of marriages registered in 2011 was 14 736, an increase of 4.1% compared to the previous year.
The average age at first marriage is 25.4 years for bride and 28.3 for groom.
Changes in the age structure of the population have their impact on the number of deaths in the country. In 2011, there were 19 465 deaths, an increase of 1.8% compared to the previous year.
The average age at death is 69.9 years for males and 74.4 years for females, which means that women live 4.5 years longer on average.
Most frequent causes of death are circulatory diseases, which represent 59.2% of the total number of deaths, followed by neoplasms with 18.2%, and endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases with 3.9%.
As a result of the declining birth rate and the increasing rate of general mortality in the last 10 years, the rate of natural increase has dropped from 3.6 ‰ in 2001 to 1.6 ‰ in 2011.
Internal migrations cover the changes of the place of residence on the territory of the Republic of Macedonia. In 2011, 7612 persons changed their place of residence within the Republic of Macedonia.
International migration covers the migration of citizens of the Republic of Macedonia from the Republic of Macedonia to another country and vice versa, as well as the migration of foreigners. In 2011, net migration (the difference between immigration and emigration) was 806 persons.